Evidence of heavy methylation in the galectin 3 promoter in early stages of prostate adenocarcinoma: development and validation of a methylated marker for early diagnosis of prostate cancer
- Autori: Ahmed, H.; Cappello, F.; Rodolico, V.; Vasta, G.
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2009
- Tipologia: Articolo su rivista (Articolo in rivista)
Galectins, soluble intracellular and extracellular β-galactoside- binding proteins, are known to be involved in the progression and metastasis of various cancers, including prostate adenocarcinoma, but the detailed mechanism of their biological roles remains elusive. In the prostate cancer cell lines PC-3 and DU-145, galectin 3 (gal3) is present at normal levels, whereas in LNCaP, its expression is silenced. In LNCaP, the gal3 promoter was heavily methylated, whereas PC-3 or DU-145 cells showed negligible or no methylation in the gal3 promoter indicating a negative correlation between gal3 promoter methylation and its expression. On immunohistochemical analysis of normal and tumor prostate tissues, gal3 was found expressed both in nucleus and cytoplasm of benign prostatic hyperplasia, high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, and stage I. The expression of the gal3 was found drastically downregulated in advanced stages and, interestingly, mostly in the cytoplasm. On methylation analysis, the gal3 promoter in stage II prostate adenocarcinoma (PCa) was found heavily methylated, whereas in stages III and IV, it was only lightly methylated. However, in stage I PCa, both heavy and light methylations were observed in the gal3 promoter. In normal and benign prostatic hyperplasia tissues, the gal3 promoter was almost unmethylated. The differential cytosine methylation in the gal3 promoter in stages I to IV PCa enabled us to develop and validate a methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction-based sensitive assay specific for stages I and II PCa. These stages are considered the critical stages for successful intervention, thus underscoring the significance of this diagnostic assay.