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Ear, nose and throat (ENT) involvement in zoonotic diseases: a systematic review

  • Autori: Galletti, B.; Mannella, V.; Santoro, R.; Rodriguez Morales, A.; Freni, F.; Galletti, C.; Galletti, F.; Cascio, A.
  • Anno di pubblicazione: 2014
  • Tipologia: Articolo in rivista
  • OA Link:


INTRODUCTION: Zoonoses are infections transmitted from animal to man, either directly (through direct contact or contact with animal products) or indirectly (through an intermediate vector, such as an arthropod). The causative agents include bacteria, parasites, viruses, and fungi. The purpose of this review is to make an accurate examination of all zoonotic diseases that can be responsible of ear, nose, and throat (ENT) involvement. METHODOLOGY: A PubMed search was performed combining the terms (otorhinolaryngology OR rhinology OR laryngology OR otology OR mastoiditis OR otitis OR sinusitis OR laryngitis OR rhinitis OR pharyngitis OR epiglottitis OR dysphonia OR ear OR larynx OR nose OR pharynx) with each one of the etiological agents of zoonoses for the period between January 1997 and August 2012 without language restrictions. RESULTS: A total of 164 articles were selected and examined. Larynx was the most commonly involved ENT organ, followed by oral cavity, pharynx, and neck. Bacteria were the most representative microorganisms involved. Nose and major salivary glands were affected most frequently by protozoa; paranasal sinus, oral cavity, ear, neck, nerves and upper airway by bacteria; and larynx by fungi. CONCLUSIONS: ENT symptoms and signs may be present in many zoonotic diseases, some of which are also present in industrialized countries. Most zoonotic diseases are not commonly encountered by ENT specialists. Appreciation of the possible occurrence of these diseases is important for a correct microbiological approach, which often requires special culture media and diagnostic techniques.