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Strategies for numerical simulation of linear friction welding of metals: a review


Linear friction welding (LFW) is a solid-state joining process used to weld non-axisymmetric components. Material joining is obtained through the reciprocating motion of two specimens undergoing an axial force. During this process, the heat source is determined by the frictional work transformed into heat. This results in a local softening of the material and plays a key role in the onset of the bonding conditions. In this paper, a critical analysis of the different approaches used to simulate the LFW processes is provided. The focus of the paper is the comparison of different modeling strategies and the most relevant outputs available, i.e. temperature, strain and stress distribution, material flow, axial shortening and residual stress. Major issues arising due to the complexity of the process are discussed, highlighting strengths and weaknesses of each approach.