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Genetic contribution in sporadic thoracic aortic aneurysm? Emerging evidence of genetic variants related to TLR-4-mediated signaling pathway as risk determinants.


Sporadic thoracic aortic aneurysms (TAA) and dissections are one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially in those older than 65 years. The presentation of TAA is varied and often silent. Thus, sporadic TAA detection is often fortuitous, with identification occurring during a routine physical examination or during an unrelated medical evaluation. Once suspected, confirmation by imaging clinical approaches is needed to allow the choose of the unique treatments for TAA, namely the surgery procedures, including elective surgery or endovascular repair before the onset of catastrophic and fatal complications, such as dissection or rupture. At present, there are no biomarkers available to identify TAAs before visible symptoms. However, recent progresses in understanding of molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in the patho-physiology of sporadic TAA are suggesting different molecular pathways and their genetic variants as potential biomarkers, which might be applied into TAA clinical practice in the near future. Here, we report literature evidence on some disease pathways and their genetic variants on TAA susceptibility and compliances, and their translation as promising TAA preventive and prognostic biomarkers and targets for new personalized therapeutic treatments.