Prostate cancer: from the pathophysiologic implications of some genetic risk factors to translation in personalized cancer treatments
- Autori: Balistreri, C.; Candore, G.; Lio, D.; Carruba, G.
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2014
- Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/90870
Several pathologies affect human prostate, such as prostate cancer (PC), which is the most common non-skin malignant cancer in Western male populations. A complex interaction between genetic and environmental factors (i.e. infectious agents, dietary carcinogens) and hormonal imbalances has been reported to have a fundamental role in PC pathophysiology by evoking chronic inflammation. Thus, chronic inflammation drives prostate carcinogenesis and neoplastic progression. No adequate biomarkers exist until now to guide PC prognosis and treatment. Accordingly, the research has particularly focused its attention on genetic variants in genes, codifying molecules of signaling innate immune/inflammatory and steroid metabolism pathways, which are able to modify the PC genetic susceptibility and clinical disease outcome. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) may operate in combination to create a 'risk profile'. Combinations of several inflammatory and sex steroid hormone pathway SNPs are found in PC patients. Thus, their combinations might be used as promising biomarkers in a pre- and post-treatment clinical PC setting. Indeed, their identification may hold promise for the realization of a personalized PC medicine. Many of these aspects are summarized in this report through the elucidation of literature data and the results of our studies.