The individual contribution of starter and non-starter lactic acid bacteria to the volatile organic compound composition of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese
- Autori: Guarrasi, V.; Sannino, C.; Moschetti, M.; Bonanno, A.; Di Grigoli, A.; Settanni, L.
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2017
- Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/249699
The contribution of two starter (Lactobacillus delbrueckii and Streptococcus thermophilus) and nine non-starter (Enterococcus casselliflavus, Enterococcus faecalis, Enterococcus durans, Enterococcus gallinarum, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus paracasei, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Pediococcus acidilactici and Pediococcus pentosaceus) species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) to the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) of Caciocavallo Palermitano cheese was investigated. The strains used in this study were isolated during the production/ripening of the stretched cheese and tested in a cheese-based medium (CBM). The fermented substrates were analyzed for the growth of the single strains and subjected to the head space solid phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography – mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The 11 strains tested were all able to increase their numbers in CBM, even though the development of the starter LAB was quite limited. GC–MS analysis registered 43 compounds including seven chemical classes. A lower diversity of VOCs was registered for the unfermented curd based medium (CuBM) analyzed for comparison. The class of ketones represented a consistent percentage of the VOCs for almost all LAB, followed by alcohols and esters. The volatile profile of Pediococcus acidilactici and Lactobacillus delbrueckii was mainly characterized by 2-butanol, butanoic acid and hexanoic acid and their esters, while that of Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus rhamnosus was characterized by 2,3-butanedione and 2-butanone, 3-hydroxy. In order to correlate the VOCs produced by Caciocavallo Palermitano cheeses with those generated by individual LAB, the 4-month ripened cheeses resulting from the dairy process monitored during the isolation of LAB were also analyzed for the volatile chemical fraction and the compounds in common were subjected to a multivariate statistical analysis. The canonical analysis indicated that the VOCs of the ripened cheeses were mainly influenced by E. gallinarum, L. paracasei, L. delbrueckii, L. rhamnosus and L. casei and that 1-hexanol, o-xylene and m-xylene were the cheese VOCs highly correlated with LAB.