Effect of natural sea salt on physicochemical and textural properties of low sodium durum wheat bread
- Autori: Giannone, V.; Muccilli, S.; Todaro, A.; Alfeo, V.; Planeta, D.; Corona, O.; Spina, A.
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2015
- Tipologia: Proceedings (TIPOLOGIA NON ATTIVA)
- OA Link: http://hdl.handle.net/10447/149088
Today, the dietary salt intake is considerably higher than the recommendations of the EFSA for good health (3-4 g salt/day). Several initiatives have been undertaken for a reduction in salt intake. The traditional use of sodium chioride (NaCI) fulfils various important rheological, technological and sensory properties in manufacturing of baked goods. However, using NaCI in the production of food has been controversially discussed since a high intake of sodium is associated with hypertension (1). Recently, the Reg (EU) 1924/2006 on nutrition and health claims made on foods makes it possible to claims on a label 'low sodium/salt', 'very low sodium/salt' and 'sodium free or salt free' for foods containing low salt levels, according to the fixed limit. The aim of this this study is the development of functional bread, with the purpose of decreasing its Na content (2,3). A naturai sea salt (Atacama, Chile), with 65% of NaCI, 30% KCI, 1.5% SO4 and traces of other elements was used in order to obtain functional durum wheat bread with low in sodium (<0.12g/100g) and very low sodium claim (< 0.04/100 g). Three formulations of bread were prepared at various concentrations: 1.70%, 0.35% and 0.15% sea salt. The same contents of commercial NaCI were used as control. The physicochemical and textural attributes of bread were evaluated. Resuits showed significant differences (p<0.001) in terms of Ioaves volume, height and weight, crust thickness and trust index color. Inferior significance (p<0.05) was observed for Ioaves basis diameter. Textural measurement exhibited 0.15% Na-K supplemented bread was significantly highest (p<0,05) in hardness, gumminess and chewiness than the other two types of samples evaluated. 1.70% Na-K supplemented Ioaves showed higher improvement in terms of increased softness and crumb moisture. 0.35% of sea salt supplementation has allowed to obtain a functional bread with low sodium content without affecting the overall of physicochemical and textural properties of the product.