A full economic evaluation of extensive vaccination against rotavirus with RIX4414 vaccine at National and Regional level in Italy
- Autori: Vitale, F.; Barbieri, M.; Dirodi, B.; Vitali Rosati, G.; Franco, E.
- Anno di pubblicazione: 2013
- Tipologia: Articolo in rivista (Articolo in rivista)
Vaccination of all healthy children against rotavirus (RV) has been recommended, since the availability of vaccines, both in Europe (PIDJ) and Italy (pediatricians). The aims of universal vaccination against RV include the protection of children against moderate/severe gastroenteritis forms by RV (GARV), prevent hospitalizations, reduce the severity and duration of the disease, and reduce morbidity and socioeconomic costs. Payers need to informed regarding the efficacy and the healthcare utilization related to RV vaccination in order to decide in favour of its extensive implementation. The aim of this paper is to assess the clinical and financial impact of the extensive vaccination aganist RV both at National and Regional level. Particular attention, compared to the previous analysis (Standaert et al, 2008) has been given to the influence of herd immunity (HI) on cost-utility results of vaccination against-RV. Methods. The analysis was conducted with the Markovian model previously used by Standaert B et al and updated for comparing costs and benefits associated with a situation of vaccination anti-RV that includes efficacy data due to HI, with a situation without vaccination. For the base case is assumed an annual coverage of 90%, where the effect of HI is present in the population at risk (0-5 years) and extended to children who have not been vaccinated, adding as conservative assumption, a further 10% to the efficacy of the vaccine, compared to 15% determined by several published studies. Two analysis have been made based on this model: a cost-utility analysis that compared vaccination with two doses of RIX441410 administered at 2 and 3 months after birth compared with no vaccination from National Health Service and Society perspective; a budget impact analysis at National and Regional level. The evaluation has as its main element the reduction of cases of infection through universal vaccination and consequent reduction of Garv events and nosocomial infections. Results. From the NHS perspective, in a cohort of 555,791 born in Italy in 2011, the annual number of hospitalizations due to RV infections in the absence of vaccination is estimated to be 14,550 units. Assuming that 90% of newborns receive two doses of the vaccine, and including an additional effect of HI to the efficacy of the vaccine, vaccination would lead to a reduction of 71% of cases of Garv (176,804 cases in less) and a 86% of hospitalizations due to Garv (12,913 fewer cases), with an impact on quality of life and mortality as a consequence of vaccination. The introduction of the vaccine would lead to a gain of 0.0014 QALYs and 0.0022 life-years gained per child compared to a situation without vaccination (assuming a discount rate of 3% on future benefits). The reduction of GARV also would lead to a strong economic impact. The introduction of the vaccine would lead to a saving of € 25.41 per child or a saving of more than € 14 million for the whole population included in the analysis. Cost reduction increase significantly from the perspective of society and introducing the indirect costs due to lost productivity. In this case, the savings due to the introduction of vaccination would increase to € 67,747,654 in the total cohort, or € 121.89 per child. In an alternative scenario, where HI is excluded, RIX4414 remains dominant (0.0013 QALYs gained and € 22.14 per child saved). The budget impact analysis shows that, as early as the second year, the additional cost of the vaccine is more than offset by a reduction in costs of the disease, which leads to savings for the NHS, which increases from year 3. In a time horizon of 5 years (without the discount rate), the savings for the NHS amount to € 34,440,314. These savings would amount to a cost reduction of € 4.64 per child over 5 years (€ 0.93 per year). The savings due to the introduction of the vaccine were ma